Substance Abuse Professionals (SAPs) are licensed or certified professionals that have knowledge not only of the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol and controlled substances related disorders, but also of DOT drug and alcohol testing and return-to-duty processes as required by §40.281. A DOT-qualified SAP initially evaluates drivers who have violated DOT drug and alcohol regulations and makes recommendations concerning education, treatment, follow-up testing, and aftercare. Once the education and/or treatment is successfully completed, the SAP reassesses the driver’s condition and, if satisfied with the driver’s compliance, completes a SAP report and prescribes a series of follow-up tests covering a period of one to five years. Any motor carrier employing this driver during the prescribed period must complete the follow-up testing as specified by the SAP. The regulations pertaining to SAPs and the return-to-duty process are found in 49 CFR Part 40 Subpart O.